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Mª ISABEL RODRÍGUEZ

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ACOSO ESCOLAR

Posted on November 23, 2011 at 10:24 AM
¿Qué significa acoso escolar? ¿Un incidente violento que se produce en un momento determinado entre dos compañeros y que no se vuelve a repetir? Por desgracia, no. El Bulling o acoso escolar va más allá de un incidente esporádico entre dos alumnos con alguna diferencia en un momento determinado, implica desde bromas pesadas hasta abusos serios. Son comportamientos no deseados de niños y adolescentes dados que pueden actuar sobre otros de forma individual o en pandilla, provocando efectos frustrantes para sus víctimas. Este tipo de conductas se producen repetidamente y comprende desde agresiones verbales (insultos, burlas) hasta agresiones físicas (golpes, patadas,…); ocasionando consecuencias muy dañinas a nivel psicológico, para quienes las sufren. “Un alumno es agredido o se convierte en víctima cuando está expuesto, de forma repetida y durante un tiempo,  a acciones negativas que lleva a cabo otro alumno o varios de ellos." Así lo define el primer autor que habló del tema, el psicólogo Dan Olwes, volcado en la violencia escolar tras el suicidio de tres jóvenes.
Fundamentalmente se da entre alumnos de edades comprendidas entre 6 y 17 años. Según estudios, la edad de mayor riesgo en la aparición de la violencia se sitúa entre los 11 y los 15 años, porque es cuando más cambios se producen, cuando pasan del colegio al instituto. Y  sólo 1 de cada 3 de los que lo sufren son capaces de denunciarlo (33%).
El acoso sucede diariamente en los centros educativos, a veces, se ve respaldada por educadores que “quitan hierro al asunto” con la típica frase “es cosa de niños”; pero en ese juego de niños hay uno que se siente humillado, hasta tal punto, de querer acabar con su vida. Nadie debe subestimar el miedo que un niño, niña o adolescente intimidado puede llegar a sentir, ello es, motivo de preocupación. De hecho, es causa de que existan programas educativos de prevención. En el caso de España, Sevilla figura como pionera, puesto que, es importante prevenir y atajar posibles brotes.
Existen distintos tipos de acoso escolar, los cuales, pueden aparecer de forma paralela.
  • Físico: empujones, patadas, agresiones con objetos,..etc. Se da con más frecuencia en Primaria que en Secundaria.
  • Verbal: es el más habitual. Insultos y motes principalmente, también menosprecios en público, resaltar defectos físicos,...
  • Psicológico: bajan la autoestima del individuo y fomentan su sensación de temor.
  • Social: pretende aislar al joven del resto del grupo y compañeros.
Para poder hablar de acoso escolar, se requiere de ciertas características:
  • Debe existir una víctima indefensa atacada por un abusón o grupo de matones,
  • Presencia de desigualdad de poder (desequilibrio de fuerzas), entre el más fuerte y el más débil. Es   una situación desigual, de indefensión para la víctima,
  • Existencia de una acción agresiva repetida, durante un período largo de tiempo y de forma recurrente.
  • La agresión crea en la víctima la expectativa de poder ser blanco de ataques nuevamente.
  • La Intimidación se refiere   a sujetos concretos, nunca al grupo.
  • La intimidación se puede ejercer en solitario o en grupo.
Algunas señales de alarma:  
Cambios en el comportamiento del niño; cambios de humor; tristeza, llantos o irritabilidad; pesadillas, cambios en el sueño y /o en el apetito; dolores somáticos, dolores de cabeza, de estómago, vómitos; pierde o se deterioran sus pertenencias escolares o personales, gafas, mochila, pantalones rotos, pérdida del estuche, etc. de forma frecuente; aparece con golpes, hematomas o rasguños, dice que tiene frecuentes caídas o accidentes, no quiere salir, ni se relaciona con sus compañeros;  no acude a excursiones, visitas, etc., del colegio; quiere ir acompañado a la entrada y salida; se niega o protesta para ir al colegio.
La mayoría de las veces los padres y profesores son los últimos en enterarse de lo que les ocurre a los chicos. La vergüenza o el miedo a las represalias son los principales motivos.  Esperar a que el asunto se arregle sólo, no sirve de nada, estar informados es la principal herramienta para evitar situaciones desagradables para nuestros niños y adolescentes, e implica, ayudar a las víctimas pero también los acosadores.
 

Categories: INFORMACIÓN

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